The requirements for integrity and continuity in the published version of AMC 20-28 are more stringent than those in the NPA and are inconsistent with PBN and some FAA criteria.
GNSS case studies
EGNOS, the European SBAS system, has been designed to answer the aviation sector’s needs for secure landing approaches with the EGNOS SoL (Safety of Life) service.
Traditionally, the aviation industry relies on expensive (in terms of both ground radio navigation systems such as...
Satellite navigation offers a means of global navigation, available 24/7 in all weather conditions. Although GPS was designed for military purposes, these features rapidly attracted the attention of the civil aviation community. They saw its potential for navigating and approaching any runway around the globe compared to fully relying on an airport’s local ground infrastructure.
EGNOS is the European satellite-based augmentation system (SBAS), comparable to WAAS in the USA. Its utilisation in the aviation sector has been studied under the EU-funded GIANT, GIANT 2, HEDGE and Accepta projects.
One important use for SBAS is in vertical...
As a means of reducing congestion, several cities and countries have already set up or are envisaging the implementation of a charging system for road users.
Toll gates are an inadequate means of collecting charges along multiple and small portions of a road. Tolling infrastructures, even automatic ones, cannot be implemented and maintained at any street corner. A means of electronic fee collection is the solution...GNSS market segment:
Since the beginning of the 20th century, the growing demands for more food forced farmers to adopt resource-intensive and unsustainable practices, which increased both economic and environmental costs.
By the mid-1990s, new techniques were developed to make agricultural practices more efficient. A central objective was to increase yields and productivity while optimising the use of resources and reducing the negative impacts...
EGNOS continues to provide fertile ground for successful agricultural applications and companies such as CLAAS Agrosystems are harvesting its potential: according to Mr Klaus-Herbert Rolf, the company's Head of Marketing, about 90% of high-end combine harvesters currently sold by CLAAS are equipped with EGNOS-enabled receivers.
Rolf says EGNOS is no longer a...
Efficient and sustainable farming solutions are needed now more than ever, as competition in the agriculture industry continues to increase and production costs have to be considered very carefully. Precision agriculture is a highly effective farming strategy that allows farmers to better allocate inputs (e.g. seeds and fertilisers) and increase productivity, while lowering costs and minimising environmental ...
Ships of all sizes converge on areas surrounding coastal ports and access to waterways. In managing marine traffic in these congested areas, authorities have implemented traffic routeing, ship reporting and vessel traffic services (VTS).
A vessel traffic service is a marine monitoring system used to keep track of vessel movements and provide navigational safety in a limited...GNSS market segment:
Mobile location-based services use the geographic location of a personal handset – such as a personal digital assistant (PDA), smart phone or navigation device – either to enhance existing applications or to enable new applications.
These services may either use embedded satellite navigation receivers or network-based technologies (such as cell identification or triangulation from the location of the base station...GNSS market segment: